Stop and Frisk

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  • Press Conference at CIty Hall
    Darius Charney at a Press Conference at City Hall
  • Press Conference at City Hall
    Nahal Zamani and Muslims United against Stop and Frisk
  • Press Conference at CIty Hall
    June, 2012 protest against Racial Profiling
  • Press Conference at CIty Hall
    Vincent Warren at March 2010 Rally with our Allies, CPR
  • Press Conference at CIty Hall
    Sunita Patel at August 2013 Press Conference on Judge Scheindlin's Decision
  • Press Conference at CIty Hall
    July 2013 rally against Mayor Bloomberg's Veto of the Community Safety Act
  • Press Conference at CIty Hall
    Vince Warren at press conference with Mayor deBlasio on Appeal being Dropped
Floyd, et al. v. City of New York, et al.

Our Floyd case page has all the legal documents and legal timeline relating to our landmark federal lawsuit.

Our landmark federal class action lawsuit, Floyd, et al v. City of New York, successfully challenged the NYPD’s practices of racial profiling and unconstitutional stops and frisks. In August 2013, a federal judge found that the NYPD had engaged in widespread constitutional violations, targeting people of color for suspicionless stops. The court appointed an independent monitor to assist in developing and overseeing a community-inclusive reform process.

CCR is a member of the coalition Communities United for Police Reform (CPR), an unprecedented advocacy campaign that successfully fought for legislation that expanded a ban on police profiling and created an NYPD Office of the Inspector General.

In 2012, CCR released, Stop and Frisk – The Human Impact, a report documenting the effects of stop and frisk on our communities. In March 2014, CCR brought stop and frisk to the attention of the United Nations, who subsequently framed the practice as a violation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

latest news

CCR on AG Call for Investigative Power: After Decades of Demands, There Is No Time to Waste

December 8, 2014, New York – In response to New York State Attorney General Eric Schneiderman’s call today that Governor Andrew Cuomo grant him the power to investigate in instances of police shootings of unarmed…

CCR Executive Director Responds to Grand Jury Failure to Indict NYPD Officer Who Killed Eric Garner

December 3, 2014, New York – Today, Center for Constitutional Rights (CCR) Executive Director Vincent Warren released the following statement in response to the news that the Grand Jury in the Eric Garner case failed…

CCR Executive Director Responds to NYPD Killing of Akai Gurley

November 21, 2014, New York – Today, Center for Constitutional Rights (CCR) Executive Director Vincent Warren released the following statement in response to reports that a rookie NYPD officer fatally shot an unarmed black man…

Stop-and-Frisk Appeal Withdrawn; Court Rejects Union Intervention

October 31, 2014, New York – Today, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals granted the City of New York’s request to withdraw its appeal of Floyd v. City of New York, the landmark stop-and-frisk class…

research and data

Stop and Frisk: The Human Impact, The Stories Behind the Numbers,The Effects on Our Communities. Also available in Spanish.

The Map: see the 2011 statistics for yourself. Stops by precinct, with racial breakdowns, use of force, reasons for stop, and more.

Professor Jeffrey Fagan's 2010 Expert Report (Summary and Full Version)

Professor Jeffrey Fagan's 2012 Supplemental Expert Report (Summary and Full Version)

NYPD's use of stop and frisk in 2011

CCR's 2008 Report on Racial Disparity in NYPD Stops-and-Frisks

analysis and opinions

A Victory for All New Yorkers, Stop and Frisk Reforms Move Forward

Jan 31, 2014
Huffington Post

Next week will mark the 15th anniversary of the murder of Amadou Diallo, who was standing in the doorway of his own building when he was gunned down in a hail of 41 bullets by New York City Police officers as he reached for his wallet. Today is a significant day...

Stop and Frisk: The Stories Behind the Numbers

July 25, 2012
Huffington Post

Unless you've been living under a rock, you know that the New York City Police Department (NYPD) stops and frisks well over a half a million New Yorkers every year. You know that that are glaring racial disparities in who gets stopped...

NYPD's Stop and Frisk Practice Needs Reform

March 13, 2012
by NYC Council Member Jumaane D. Williams for Huffington Post

Stop, question and frisk is an acceptable policing tool, as the Supreme Court held in Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1 (1968). That is not the question at hand, despite how many have attempted to frame the debate in that way. ...

Why Is the N.Y.P.D. After Me?

Dec 17, 2011
by Nicholas Peart for The New York Times

WHEN I was 14, my mother told me not to panic if a police officer stopped me. And she cautioned me to carry ID and never run away from the police or I could be shot. In the nine years since my mother gave me this advice, I have had numerous occasions to consider her wisdom ...


The Center for Constitutional Rights (CCR) has been active for many years in the movement to address discriminatory policing practices, through advocacy, litigation, and movement support.

After the 1999 murder of Amadou Diallo by the NYPD Street Crimes Unit, CCR and others filed Daniels, et al. v. City of New York, challenging the constitutionality of the Street Crime Unit’s stop-and-frisk practices, on behalf of Plaintiffs the National Congress for Puerto Rican Rights and Malcolm X Grassroots Movement.

2003 The Daniels plaintiffs settled with the NYPD, who agreed to disband the Street Crimes Unit and adopt and a written policy against racial profiling. However, in the years following the settlement, the number of stops and frisks skyrocketed, with the vast majority of stops occurring in communities of color. CCR continued to engage in movement support and organize with our partners.

2008 CCR filed Floyd, et al. v. the City of New York, using as evidence of continued discrimination data that the court required the NYPD to collect as part of the settlement Daniels.

2011 CCR helped create Communities United for Police Reform (CPR), an advocacy campaign led by community members, lawyers, researchers, and activists to end discriminatory policing practices in New York City.

June-August 2013 Amid widespread community support, CPR saw the passage of the Community Safety Act, legislation that holds the NYPD accountable for rights violations. (press release)

August 2013 A federal judge in Floyd found the NYPD liable for unconstitutional stops and appointed an independent monitor to oversee a collaborative reform process. (press release)

October 2013 The City, under Mayor Bloomberg, appealed the Floyd ruling and halted the reform process. (press release)

November 2014 Stop and frisk became a decisive issue in the New York City Mayoral primaries and the general election.

January 2014 CCR and newly-elected Mayor Bill de Blasio jointly announced that an agreement had been reached for the City to drop the appeal to Floyd and begin the reforming the NYPD. (press release)

March 2014 CCR successfully lobbied the United Nations to question the U.S. government on the NYPD's use of stop and frisk and other discriminatory policing practices, bringing an international human rights framework to this issue. (press release)